The reading addressed three topics. The first topic addressed by the reading is the meaning of utilitarianism. The second topic discussed is utilitarianism’s susceptibility. The last topic discussed is the connection between justice and utility.
Ⅱ. Core Thesis.
The reading’s core thesis is comprised of three themes. The first theme dignifies utilitarianism theory as it define ethics as right actions that make people happy. The second theme justify that utilitarianism is susceptible as it advocates for actions aligning with the people’s virtues. The last theme notes that utilitarianism supports justice since it pioneers for actions matching with a society’s code of conduct.
Ⅲ. The reading’s notes.
Ⅳ. The reading’s questions.
Ⅴ. The reading’s summary
In conclusion, the reading leverages utilitarianism theory to distinguish right actions from wrong actions. Right actions make people happy, while immoral actions make people sad. Utilitarianism theory is widely demonstrated in the community in form of virtues; these virtues are right actions aimed at making people happy. Therefore, utilitarianism’s concept that right actions make people happy should be accepted as it backs’ a country’s justice system.
Ⅵ. Key Passage
The first passage is key to the authors’ argument. It lays a foundation that utilitarianism is a theory. Secondly, it defines utilitarianism as a theory arguing that the right actions bring happiness to society. Thirdly, the passage elaborates that happiness is the state of pleasure and no pain. The author quotes, “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.”
The reading topics are logical. I support the claim that right actions give people happiness since I associate friends with actions that pleases me. Additionally, I support the case that utilitarianism is susceptible as right actions giving people joy exist in the society as virtues, such as dignity, integrity, and honesty. Lastly, the discussion that utilitarianism promotes justice is genuine since established rules advocate for right actions protecting the citizens from social, political, and economic pains or suffering.
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